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(ECP and CTSP grantees, reports, and other sites of interest for conservation geography, mapping and GIS. Grantees are coded by program and year of grant at the end of their name/state, i.e. e91 means ECP grant in 1991. c=cstp, cm=ctsp-mac, cs=ctsp-software)

Applying the MCLP Model to Select Reserves: Using the ArcInfo GIS (UCSB Biogeography Lab). The focus of this research activity under the IBM ERP was to take operations research techniques that were well known in the literature on facility location, and to apply them to optimal reserve selection. The model utilized was the Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP). The application of the MCLP to selecting reserves has been outlined by Church, Stoms, and Davis (1996) in Biological Conservation. The difference between the Church et al. application and this research was that this application of the MCLP to reserve siting was carried out entirely within the ArcInfo Geographical Information System. ESRI has recently debuted a location modeling capability as a resident tool within the ArcInfo system.

ArcInfo GIS Applications and Models for the Conservation of Fossil and Cultural Resources at the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona . (by Michael R. Kunzmann, Gary L. Christopherson, Craig A. Wissler, D. Phillip Guertin, and Tom N. Potter. Contact: Michael R. Kunzmann, Ecologist National Biological Survey Cooperative Park Studies Unit University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (602) 621-7282, FAX (602) 670-5001) "The Petrified Forest National Park in northern Arizona was created to preserve the mineralized remains of Mesozoic Forests commonly known as the "Petrified Forest." The park is not only rich in plant fossils, but is an important site for Triassic vertebrate fossils. The park contains important archeological resources, including some of the most important rock art sites in the southwest, and several rare, endangered, and threatened species. The Advanced Resource Technology Program at the University of Arizona, in cooperation with the National Biological Survey and National Park Service, has been developing a GIS database and applications for the park to address its unique problems. This paper will review the Petrified Forest GIS program, including database and application development. Database development has included the collection of field data using global positioning systems. Examples of GIS-based applications include an erosion sensitivity model to assist in the monitoring of diverse fossil and archeological sites and an archeological site probability model, both developed using ArcInfo GIS software."

A COMPARISON OF SPATIAL EXTENT, ACCURACY, & LANDSCAPE PATTERN IN CURRENT FOREST RESOURCE MAPS OF THE APPALACHIANS (Peter Leimgruber, William J McShea, & Gary Schnell, Contact: Smithsonian Institution, Conservation and Research Center, 1500 Remount Road, Front Royal, VA 22630 GIS Lab tel:540-635-6543 FAX:540-635-6506 Courses: Chris Larson (" Forest-managing agencies in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States have extensive spatial databases that are frequently used for landscape studies and management, but there is little information on the accuracy and usefulness of this data...Our results demonstrate the need to evaluate the accuracy of spatial databases prior to their use in landscape studies or forest management."

LANDSCAPE INFLUENCES ON MIGRATORY BIRDS & SMALL MAMMALS (Bill McShea, Peter Leimgruber, Contact: Smithsonian Institution, Conservation and Research Center, 1500 Remount Road, Front Royal, VA 22630 GIS Lab tel:540-635-6543 FAX:540-635-6506) "Funded by the Warm Springs Ranger District of the George Washington National Forest, this project examines the landscape and microhabitat features that determine the distribution of small mammals and migratory birds within the Forest Service's extensive holdings on this mountain in Highland and Bath Counties in Virginia. Forest stand information in a GIS was used to select over 350 sample points across the landscape, which are being censused for birds, small mammals, and bats."

Beyond Mapping: Using Gis For Natural Resource Assessment And Analysis (1995 ESRI Conf. Paper, Edith Read &Jennifer Gough: Psomas Associates) We present three diverse examples which show how GIS can be applied to relationships between hydrological and biological resources.

Characterizing Error in a Presettlement Vegetation Map (1995 ESRI Conf. Abstract, Tim Haithcoat, Eric Compas) ...General Land Office survey notes were used to reconstruct the presettlement vegetation of a portion of the Current River watershed in the Missouri Ozarks.

Classifying topographically similar landscape units using digital terrain surfaces and multivariate analysis within a geographic information system (1996 ESRI Conf. Abstract, Richard H. Odom, Dr. Stephen P. Prisley)...Topographic and plant community characteristics were measured at 400 plots located on the Westvaco Wildlife and Ecosystem Research Forest, a 8,430 acre tract near Elkins, West Virginia. Forest community types were identified by analyzing species abundance and basal area data using community classification and ordination techniques. A discriminant function was then developed that described the correlation of these forest types to topographic gradients in the landscape.

Decision Support Tools for Natural Resource, Nature Conservation and Environmental Management in South Africa (1996 ESRI Conf. Abstract, Mike Adam and Dean H. K. Fairbanks)...This paper describes a number of the GIS management tools developed by Environmentek over the last year. These tools include, the Conservation Management System a catchment/reserve level fire and alien weed management tool, the National Nature Conservation Information System, a national level decision support tool, the Open Areas Management System...

Developing a Natural Resource Database for Geographic Information System, Khaled M. Hassouna, Special Report submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Tech in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Forestry, March 13, 1997 Blacksburg, Virginia, Dr. Richard G. Oderwald, Co-Chair Dr. Robert H. Giles,Jr., Co-Chair Dr. Gerald H. Cross . "Geographic information systems ( GIS ) are an effective tool for land management. By studying the land formations and land cover of a site, much information about the tree and animal species inhabiting a site can be estimated."

Ecoregions of Alaska (1996 ESRI Conf. Abstract, E.F. Binnian, A.L. Gallant, J.M. Omernik, M.B. Shasby)...A map and set of descriptions of 20 ecological regions (ecoregions) of Alaska have been produced as a framework for organizing and interpreting environmental data for State-level inventory, monitoring, and research efforts. The map was derived by synthesizing information on the geographic distribution of environmental factors such as climate terrain, geology, soils, hydrology, and vegetation.

Evolution of a Regional Vegetation Prediction Model (1996 ESRI Conf. Abstract, Steven Zubalik and Dr. Jan Henderson)...For over fifteen years, Dr. Jan Henderson has been collecting forest plot data and developing a model to predict climax vegetation using physical determinants (e.g., slope, aspect, elevation, precipitation, temperature, topographic moisture, and cold air drainage) in the North Cascade Mountains in Washington State....This paper describes the theoretical basis for the model, provides an overview of how the model functions, and highlights some of the technical problems to be overcome in expanding this GIS application...

Geographical Information Systems, Remote Sensing Techniques, and GPS-based Field Verification Methodologies for Mapping Vegetation Change at Chiricahua National Monument, Arizona. (1996 ESRI User Paper, Michael R. Kunzmann, Susan M. Skirvin, Peter S. Bennett, and Craig A. Wissler) . Professional management requires accurate and comprehensive information of park resources. Perhaps the most basic information for managing natural-resource areas is a thorough knowledge of vegetation, an undisputed resource of scenic beauty, wildlife habitat, and overall ecosystem function. Rapid vegetation changes in Southeastern Arizona ecosystems have been well documented (Nichol, 1937; Reynold and Bohning, 1956; Hastings and Turner, 1965; Bahre, 1991). To assess vegetation change at Chiricahua National Monument, an ArcInfo-based GIS has been developed as well as a revised Brown, Lowe, and Pase vegetation classification system. The GIS and vegetation classification systems in conjunction with numerous remote sensing methodologies and computer-based automated field mapping techniques, have been indispensable tools in the process of creating an up-to-date vegetation map. The new vegetation map coupled with GIS analysis provides a means for making informed management decisions about the relative extent and nature of vegetation changes between 1939 and the present. The new vegetation map will also (1) serve as a baseline dataset for monitoring the effects of natural fires and prescribed burning programs, (2) serve as an aid in the evaluation of potential wildlife habitat, and (3) be used to assess the possible impacts of human activities.

GIS Based Ecosystem Indicators for National and Subnational Assessment (1995 ESRI Conf. Abstract, Bruce A. Wilcox, K. Shawn Smallwood )...A general framework and some specific applications are presented for applying DCW and land cover data sets to simple models for assessing biotic integrity (or health) and vulnerability of ecosystems and biodiversity at the regional scale.

GIS for Environmental Management: A Hierarchical Database Structure (1995 ESRI Conf. Paper, R. Douglas Ramsey, Kimberly Patraw, Brian Biggs, Allan Falconer, Tom Van Neil, Merland Halisky, Richard Spencer)...Ecosystems function across many scales. However, resource managers must often use data at whatever scale is available. To provide the resource manager with data that can be used to evaluate these systems at various scales and to place local information in a regional context, a database has been generated at Utah State University, Department of Geography and Earth Resources. The database can be used to address environmental management problems at multiple scales. It brings together information gathered by the U.S. Geologic Survey, the National Biological Service, and the Utah National Guard to place ground based information in a local, regional, state, and national context.

A GIS framework for modeling wildlife species distributions (UCSB Biogeography Lab, Allan David Hollander) "Maps of wildlife species distributions are a fundamental display of data in biogeography, and increasingly GIS methods are used to develop models of distributions. This dissertation examines some of the major issues in constructing predictive maps of species, focusing on the capability of GIS to relate environmental factors to distributions through logical or mathematical inference. "

All text by the respective organizations, January 2, 1997

Compilation & web design: Charles Convis, ESRI Conservation Program, April 2, 1996


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